Tag Archives: Royal Garrison Artillery

Portsmouth as an Army Garrison 1914

Something that has always intrigued me is the manner in which Portsmouth’s military heritage is often overlooked, compared to its naval past. Sure, we all know that Portsmouth is the historic home of the Royal Navy, but few people know about the long and enduring presence of the British Army in Portsmouth. It stands to reason that such a critical naval base and embarkation point will be a natural place for a significant Army garrison.

The regular Battalions of the Hampshire Regiment were both based outside of Hampshire. The 1st Battalion were at the Essex garrison town of Colchester, while the 2nd Battalion were overseas at Mhow in India. The convention in the British Army for many years had been for one of a Regiment’s Battalions to be based at home in Britain, whilst the other would be based overseas in one of Britain’s colonies.

In 1914 Portsmouth came under Southern Command, commanded by Lieutenant-General Sir Horace Smith-Dorrien. Smith-Dorrien later commanded a Corps in the BEF in 1914 and 1915. Southern Command was Headquartered at Salisbury, but the Portsmouth Garrison in particular was commanded by Major General W.E. Blewett CB CMG, the General Officer Commanding the Portsmouth Garrison.

9 Infantry Brigade, commanded by Brigadier-General F.C. Shaw, comprised the bulk of Portsmouth’s infantry.  9 Infantry Brigade had four Infantry Battalions under its command, and was designated as a part of the BEF to go overseas in the event of war breaking out. 1st Battalion Northumberland Fusiliers and 1st Bn Lincolnshire Regiment were barracked in Portsmouth, while the 4th Bn Royal Fusiliers were at Parkhurst on the Isle of Wight and the 1st Bn Royal Scots Fusiliers were based across the Harbour in Gosport. The Brigade was one of the first units to go to France in August 1914, fighting with the 3rd Division.

Surrounded by fortifications, Portsmouth was also home to several Artillery units. 1 Heavy Brigade of Royal Garrison Artillery was based in Palmerston Forts nearby at Fareham, with 26 Battery at Fort Wallington, 35 Battery at Fort Fareham and 108 Battery at Fort Nelson.

The Army Service Corps also had a strong presence in Portsmouth, with 12 and 29 Companies being based in the town, along with 62 Mechanical Transport Company. A section of 2 Coy of the Army Ordnance Corps was also based in Portsmouth. No 6 Company of the Royal Army Medical Corps was based at Cosham, I suspect at the new Queen Alexandra Hospital on Portsdown Hill.

Portsmouth was also home to significant Territorial Force units. The 6th Battalion of the Hampshire Regiment had its Headquarters at the Connaught Drill Hall in Portsmouth. Much of Portsmouth’s defence, in the event of war, comprised Territorial Forces. The General Officer Commanding South Coast Defences, under Southern Command, was based in Portsmouth. 37 and 42 Companies of the Royal Garrison Artillery formed part of the inner defences of the Portsmouth area, while 29 and 67 Companies comprised the outer defences.

III Reserve Brigade of the Royal Field Artillery was Headquartered at Hilsea, comprising 140 and 141 Batteries. The Artillery Barracks at Hilsea were located near Gatcombe Park, and several of the Barrack buildings still exist, including the Riding School. The Brigade’s 3 Depot was based nearby, close to Cosham Railway Station. 1 Wessex Brigade of the Royal Field Artillery had its Headquarters at St Pauls Road in Portsmouth, consisting of 1, 2 and 3 Hampshire Battalions RFA, and 1 Wessex Ammunition Column.

Territorial units of the Royal Engineers were based in Portsmouth. Hampshire Fortress RE had its Headquarters in Commercial Road, with No 1 and No 2 Work Companies being based in Hampshire Terrace, along with No 4 Electric Lights Company. 3rd Wessex Coy of the Royal Army Medical Corps was also based in Portsmouth.

In all, Portsmouth was home to several thousand Regular troops of Infantry, Artillery, Army Service Corps, Army Ordnance Corps and Royal Army Medical Corps. There was also a Brigade Headquarters and no doubt the usual support services that come with any substantial garrison. Soldiers would have been a frequent and daily sight to the townspeople.

Interestingly, it seems that quite a few servicemen who went to France in 1914 with 9 Infantry Brigade had put down roots in Portsmouth. In particular, a not insignificant number of men who were killed serving with the 1st Northumberland Fusiliers and the 1st Lincolnshire Regiment seem to have been living in private residences in Portsmouth. Of course, neither Regiment could lay claim to southern Hampshire as a recruiting area, so it would seem that men from Northumberland and Lincoln who found themselves stationed in Portsmouth ended up marrying local girls and living out of Barracks in the town.

Portsmouth was by no means a prominent Garrison in the manner of towns such as Aldershot and Colchester, or Salisbury Plain, but never the less the town did play host to a much more significant military force than most people are aware of. It is perhaps hard for modern Portsmuthians to imagine, considering that the Army garrison began to shrink after 1918 and nowadays consists solely of the Army contingent at the Defence Diving School on Horsea Island. 



Filed under Army, Local History, portsmouth heroes

The four Ware Brothers

With work virtually finished on my book, I’ve been ‘moonlighting’ and carrying on with compiling the counterpart WW1 database. And I’ve found something pretty remarkable. The late Walter and Elizabeth Ware, of Havant Road in Cosham, lost four sons during the First World War.

Walter and Elizabeth Ware married in Southsea in 1882. According to the 1891 census, Walter and Elizabeth Ware were living in Knapps Cottages, 1 Havant Road. This was technically outside Portsmouth, in Widley. Walter Ware was born in 1853, and was an employed Labourer, originally born in the village of Southwick north of Portsmouth. His wife Elizabeth was born in Southsea in 1858. As well as Walter, William and Wynn, they also had a daughter Mabel and another son, Wallace.

Private George Ware, 20, was a regular soldier serving with the 1st Battalion of the Duke of Cornwall’s Light Infantry. The 1st DCLI had been station in Ireland, but went to France in August 1914. George Ware was killed on 14 September 1914 during the Battle of the Aisne, and is remembered on the La Ferte-sous-Jouarre Memorial in France.

Sergeant Wynn Ware, 29, was serving with the 5th Battalion of the Royal Irish Fusiliers. The 5th Royal Irish were a Service unit, formed in Armagh in 1914 as part of Kitchener’s New Armies. Sailing to Gallipoli in 1915, the Battalion landed at Suvla Bay on 7 August 1915. Wynn Ware was killed on 17 September 1915, and is remembered by a special memorial in Green Hill Cemetery in Turkey.

Corporal Jack Ware, 21, was a medic serving at 33rd Casualty Clearing Station, part of the Royal Army Medical Corps. He died on 20 December 1916, and is buried in Calais Southern Cemetery in France. The 33rd CCS were based at Bethune for most of the war, so Jack Ware must have been ill himself and transferred away from the front line, possibly explaining why he is buried in Calais.

Gunner Walter Ware, 36, was serving with 136th Heavy Battery of the Royal Garrison Artillery. He was killed on 15 June 1918, and is buried in Canada Farm Cemetery in Belgium.

Walter died in 1894 and Elizabeth in 1903, but had they been alive they would have received four telegrams from the War Office informing her that each of her sons had been killed in action. One must have been bad enough, but four? In Saving Private Ryan Tom Hanks’s character went to save James Ryan as three of his brothers has been killed, but Mrs Ware lost four sons in the Great War.

If I’m going to write a book about the men of Portsmouth killed during the First World War, then I think we’re going to be hearing a lot more about the Ware family. If anyone has any information about them at all, fee free to contact me.


Filed under Army, portsmouth heroes, Uncategorized, western front, World War One